Causes & Prevalence of Albinism
Albinism is caused by a mutation in one of several different genes involved in making the pigment melanin.
Although albinism can affect all races and ethnic groups, some parts of the world including Africa have a much higher rate. For example one in 35 south African blacks is a carrier of albinism mutation. [olade 2007] In addition one in every 4,000 people in South Africa is born with albinism: in contrast, in Denmark, the figures are only 1 in 60,000 (parliament forum on small arms and light weapons 2009). The type of albinism prevalent in n the United States of America is type 1 (tyrosinase-negative).
The frequency of this type of albinism is about 1 in every 20,000 Tyrosinase –positive albinism is the moist prevalent type found through out Africa. Where in can range from 1 in every 2000 to 1 in every 5000.. This type is also higher in African American population where it can be found where it van be found in the ratio of 1 in every 10, 000as compared to 1in every 36000 among Caucasian-Americans. Similarly, the frequency of Hermannsky –Pudlak syndrome is much higher in Puerto Rico where it is approximately one in every 2,700.